Global Market Research

Market Research Glossary

Here you will find the glossary for the DJS Research Ltd website. This glossary of market research terms is being constantly updated and added to, so feel free to check back regularly for the latest industry terminology. In addition, if you would like to submit an idea for a term, you can do so by emailing our marketing and communications team here. If you are interested in reading market research findings, updated on a daily basis and organised by sector, feel free to visit our insights page.

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Accessibility of Surveys

How have we made our surveys accessible? Outside of the above, we have also made progress in enhancing the compatibility of our online survey template with screen-readers, which allow blind and partially-sighted… Read more...


Accompanied Shop Market Research

In market research, accompanied shops refers to the process of a researcher literally joining a shopper, the respondent, on a shopping trip. Accompanied shops can be an effective way of understanding… Read more...


Accompanied Shopping Trips

In our experience, one of the most effective ways of understanding a consumer’s buying behaviour is to accompany them on a shopping trip – something we call "Accompanied Shopping Trips".… Read more...


ACORN

Developed by CACI Limited, the ACORN consumer classification tool categorises the population of the United Kingdom into various demographic types. ACORN, which provides an in-depth understanding of the… Read more...


Ad Hoc Market Research

Ad hoc market research refers to studies which are carried out on a 'one-off' basis - as opposed to being a larger tracking project or a programme of on-going research. Ad hoc research is often… Read more...


Ad Hoc Market Research Surveys

Ad Hoc Market Research Surveys are used to address specific marketing issues or areas of enquiries by collecting data at one point in time from one sample. In other words, Ad Hoc Market Research Surveys… Read more...


Ad Recall Market Research

The purpose of Ad Recall Market Research is to measure of the effectiveness of advertising. This type of research recognises that simply reaching audiences is not the be all and end all of advertising… Read more...


Ad Testing Market Research

Ad testing market research involves testing advertisements across a range of different mediums (TV, online, print, radio etc.) and the technique can be utilised at almost any stage during the ad development… Read more...


Ad Tracking Market Research

Ad Tracking Market Research is utilised to monitor the performance of a brand across a range of criteria including advertising and brand awareness and attitudes about the brand in comparison with competitors.… Read more...


Adaptive Conjoint Analysis

Adaptive conjoint analysis is a computer aided survey platform developed in the 1980s by Richard Johnson (founder of Sawtooth Software) which is unique in that it is able to provide a custom, tailor-made… Read more...


Advertising Research

In order to advertise both effectively and efficiently, specialist Advertising Market Research is often conducted by media agencies in order to improve the targeting of creative towards relevant audiences,… Read more...


AIMRI

AIMRI is the Alliance of International Market Research Institutes. DJS Research Ltd is an AIMRI member. Read more...


Alumni Market Research

Alumni market research is a type of market research, most often carried out in the higher education sector (although some colleges and larger private schools or school networks do also conduct alumni… Read more...


Analogous Situations

In market research, analogous situations are sometimes used to consider a product or service which cannot be tested directly. For instance, a researcher may be looking to understand the likelihood of… Read more...


Analysis

The analysis stage of a market research project is the process of gathering all the data - be it qualitative, quantitative, or a mix of both - together and drawing out patterns and conclusions from it.… Read more...


AQR

AQR is The Association for Qualitative Research. AQR was founded in the 1980s and is a non-profit organisation focussed on developing and maintaining the quality of qualitative research. DJS Research… Read more...


At-Home Testing

During market research product testing projects, it may be decided that the best method of testing a product is for participants to take the product home with them and to use it for an extended period… Read more...


Attitude, Awareness and Usage (AAU) Study

An Attitude, Awareness and Usage (AAU) Study is a particular type of market research study that allows client companies to gain a greater understanding of their market presence, and their strength within… Read more...


Attitudinal Segmentation

Attitudinal segmentation is when companies target their customer groups based on a set of shared attitudes they hold. Conducting this kind of segmentation allows you to understand existing and potential… Read more...


Audience Measurement

Audience measurement is the term which refers to a technique broadcasters and advertisers use to determine the demographic of people who are watching or listening to a broadcast. Audience measurement… Read more...


Automotive Industry Market Research

Automotive industry market research can be undertaken both on behalf of and with regards to the automotive industry. Automotive industry market research is not bound to a specific research method, with… Read more...


Back Checking Data

Back Checking Data is a method employed by researchers to aid in the quality control procedure of the data and of the responses gathered during market research projects. After the data is gathered by… Read more...


Balanced Scale

A balanced scale refers to an ordinal question asked to the respondents of a piece of research. It is mainly used in quantitative market research questionnaires and surveys. A balanced scale question… Read more...


Bar Chart

A bar chart displays data in the form of bars - either horizontally or vertically. The length of the bars is in a direct relationship with the value of that chart's attribute. In market research,… Read more...


Bayesian Statistics

Bayesian Statistics are a specific subset within the wider range of statistics. The definition of Bayesian Statistics is essentially that of evidence being expressed in what is known as Bayesian probabilities,… Read more...


Behavioural Segmentation

Behavioural segmentation is the term used to describe how market research professionals and marketers can identify and analyse specific patterns in behaviours, enabling market researchers to segment a… Read more...


Berg Balance Scale

The Berg Balance Scale is the name of a clinical test which determines the static and balance abilities of the participant. Health care professionals will often administer the Berg Balance Scale test… Read more...


BHBIA

BHBIA is the British Healthcare Business Intelligence Association. The BHBIA aims to promote the value and professionalism of business intelligence in the Healthcare sector. DJS Research Ltd are certified… Read more...


Biased Market Research Sample

During market research projects, it is possible to have biased market research sample. This is when a particular statistic in the sample does not accurately portray the true value within the target population.… Read more...


BIG

BIG is the Business Intelligence Group. BIG represents users and suppliers of B2B research and market intelligence services. DJS Research Ltd holds a membership with the Business Intelligence Group. Read more...


Bivariate Regression Analysis

Bivariate Regression Analysis is a type of statistical analysis that can be used during the analysis and reporting stage of quantitative market research. It is often considered the simplest form of regression… Read more...


Bivariate Research Techniques

Bivariate Research Techniques consist of a variety of statistical testing methods used in market research to analyse the relationship between two variables. One variable is frequently labelled as the… Read more...


Blind Use Testing

Blind Use Testing is when certain information or aspects of a product are kept concealed from the tester to ensure there is no bias in their reporting. Blind Use Testing can be used when clients want… Read more...


Brand Auditing Market Research

Brand Auditing Market Research has several instrumental benefits to companies, it: Identifies awareness and knowledge gaps that may inform marketing communications with customers, prospects, suppliers… Read more...


Brand Differentiation

Brand differentiation is a process undertaken by companies who seek to ensure their brand stands out from their competitions’. By singling out unique qualities your product offers and promoting… Read more...


Brand Impact Market Research

Brand Impact Market Research is a method used to establish the effectiveness of advertising and brand messaging for a particular brand, product or service. It leads to insights into the strongest possible… Read more...


Brand Market Research

Brand market research refers to the process of research which is related to brands and branding. A brand is an abstract set of ideas or beliefs about an organisation, company, product or person. Most… Read more...


Brand Price Trade Off

In order to gain insight into the effects of varying price points on purchase behaviour, many retailers utilise the Brand Price Trade-Off (BPTO) research technique before launching a competitive product… Read more...


Brief - Market Research

In market research, a brief is a basic set of specifications about what a particular research project is hoping to achieve and what business problems the research seeks to solve. Briefs are usually given… Read more...


Bulletin Board Groups

Bulletin Board Groups, also known by other names such as Bulletin Board Focus Groups or forums, is a qualitative research methodology. It is an online technique, whereby participants take part in an online… Read more...


Business to Business (B2B) Market Research

B2B market research is research carried out with businesses. These businesses may still be clients, or potential clients, of the commissioning company or organisation, but they are not individual customers… Read more...


Business to Consumer (B2C) Market Research

Business to Consumer (B2C) Market Research is research conducted with consumers on behalf of businesses.  It may also be simply called Consumer Research.  Research will be conducted with consumers… Read more...


CAPI Market Research

In market research, CAPI stands for computer aided personal interviewing. CAPI is used when the interviewer is carrying out face-to-face research, and utilises a laptop, or more commonly a tablet or hand-held… Read more...


CATI Market Research

In market research, CATI stands for computer aided telephone interviewing. CATI is used when an interviewer is carrying out telephone research - be it B2B or consumer. The interviewer is able to read… Read more...


Causal Research

In order to investigate the impact of one variable against another, many brands and organisations look to Causal Research to accurately measure the possible effects of a range of cause and effect relationships.… Read more...


CAWI Market Research

In market research, CAWI stands for computer assisted web interviewing - a technique where the respondent follows a questionnaire script provided on a webpage. CAWI allows for the display of images, videos,… Read more...


Census

A census study incorporates every available aspect of a given population. For instance, a census study in the UK incorporate all ethnic groups and sexes for example. Many governments still maintain a… Read more...


CHAID

In market research, CHAID is the acronym for chi-square automatic interaction detection. CHAID is based on a form of significance testing and is often applied to direct marketing applications, where it… Read more...


Channel Checking

The aim of a channel check is to obtain information across a company’s supply chain, in order to analyse a company’s stock. The information must not be sourced from the company being analysed,… Read more...


Chi-square

Otherwise referred to as the X2 test, the Chi-Square test is a statistical hypothesis test for the measurement and definition of sample distribution. This form of test is commonly used to determine the… Read more...


CIM (Chartered Institute of Marketing)

The Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) was founded on the 16th May 1911. CIM's Royal Charter states that it is a body set up 'to promote and develop the art and science of marketing and to… Read more...


CIPR (Chartered Institute of Public Relations)

The Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) offer memberships on an individual basis to members of the public relations profession regardless of their career level or seniority. CIPR's stated… Read more...


Client

A client is any individual, company, department, government body, charity or any other person or organisation on who's behalf a market research agency is conducting research. Clients are responsible… Read more...


Closed Question

A closed, or closed-ended question, is a question which can only be answered in one of several specific ways. For example, a closed question might be one which is either a 'yes' or 'no'… Read more...


Cluster Sampling

When analysing a set of responses from a sample, natural yet distinctive groupings can often occur, particularly when it comes to the analysis of responses against a range of attitudinal or behavioural… Read more...


Co-Creation Market Research

Co-Creation market research is a methodology which involves a discussion between a brand, company or organisation and stakeholders within it, and that organisations customers or clients. Co-creation takes… Read more...


Coding - Market Research

In market research, coding involves collating the various responses gained during the fieldwork process in to a set of several key 'issues' - each issue is then given a code. Coding is most often… Read more...


Commercial Data Processing

Commercial data processing (CDP) covers a wide range of systems that are used by commercial businesses and other organisations worldwide to ensure that data is processed quickly and with very few errors.… Read more...


Concept Testing

Sometimes referred as market testing, Concept Testing represents a vital aspect of the product development process, utilising both quantitative and qualitative research methods in order to gauge receptiveness… Read more...


Conclusive Market Research

Conclusive market research, or conclusive research, consists of formal research which specifically answers a business problem - i.e. it is designed to help the client or commissioning individual make… Read more...


Confidence level

A measurement of the frequency of confidence intervals, the Confidence Level refers to the number of samples within a population that include a true population parameter, as different samples selected… Read more...


Conjoint Analysis

Conjoint analysis is used in market research to understand how specific attributes of a product or service are valued by those buying or using that product or service. The overarching aim of conjoint… Read more...


Consumer Market Research

Consumer market research is carried out with respondents who are asked to give their opinion on a particular product or service. Consumers are often members of the general public, although for less commonly… Read more...


Consumer Panel Research

Consumer panel research refers to a market research methodology which utilises consumer panels in order to quickly and efficiently understand the prevailing views of a group - whether that be a specific… Read more...


Consumer Profiling

Consumer Profiling is a method of providing detailed information about a target market, and helping businesses to gain an in-depth insight into their customers, so they understand their market much better.… Read more...


Content Market Research Analysis

When sifting through large volumes of research data, Content Market Research Analysis can be a really helpful technique for the truncation of reams of text into smaller, more compressed, content categories.… Read more...


Content Market Research Analysis

When sifting through large volumes of research data, Content Market Research Analysis can be a really helpful technique for the truncation of reams of text into smaller, more compressed, content categories.… Read more...


Coolhunting (Market Research)

Coolhunting was first used as a term in the early 1990s and refers to a then new group of marketing professionals (coolhunters) who tried to predict potential new trends, or changes to existing ones,… Read more...


Correlation Analysis - Market Research

Correlation analysis is a method of statistical evaluation used to study the strength of a relationship between two, numerically measured, continuous variables (e.g. height and weight). This particular… Read more...


Cross Tabulation Data (Cross-Tabs)

During the process of data analysis, researchers will often choose to have the statistical results compiled into a Cross Tabulation or Cross-tab, which in simple terms, is a table containing columns and… Read more...


Customer Insight

Customer insight focuses on the intersection between the interests of the consumer and features of the brand or organisation. Its main purpose is to understand why the consumer cares for the brand as… Read more...


Customer Profiling

Customer Profiling is a method used to get an accurate understanding of your consumers to help you make informed, beneficial decisions to your company’s strategy. Customer profiling involves breaking… Read more...


Customer Satisfaction Survey Questions

Customer satisfaction survey questions are a key component of any piece of customer satisfaction research, and thus a vital part of customer relationship management. Depending on the type of organisation… Read more...


Customer Segmentation

Customer segmentation market research is an effective tool for organisations which deal with a wide-range of individuals and wish to offer a more targeted service or to target specific groups within their… Read more...


Data

Market research data is the raw observations or measurements taken during the fieldwork element of a research project. Data can be in the form of numbers, audio files, verbatim comments, videos and numerous… Read more...


Data Analysis in Market Research

The data analysis stage in a market research project is the stage when qualitative data, quantitative data or a mixture of both, is brought together and scrutinised in order to draw conclusions based… Read more...


Data Capture

This is any process for converting information into a form that can be handled by a computer. Automatic forms of data entry include the bar code reader – typically used at a shop to find details… Read more...


Data Dictionary

A Data Dictionary is a centralised repository which holds information about data, mainly to be used for the purpose of information resource management. The information a Data Dictionary holds about data… Read more...


Data Entry Company

Data Entry Company is a broad term used to describe companies who input various types of data, including alphabetic, numeric and symbolic, into computerised databases. The workload of a data entry company… Read more...


Data Processing

Data processing is the transfer of data from its raw form in to a database format. There are numerous software packages which can be used to do this, and further packages which can be used to assist researchers… Read more...


Data Sources

There are four main sources for market research data. Respondents, analogous situations, experimentation and secondary data. You can find out more information about these four sources by looking for their… Read more...


Demographics

Demographics are the statistics, or details, of a target population’s defining characteristics. These typically include details such as age, gender, marital status, income and occupation, but may… Read more...


Depth Research

Depth research is a term which can describe several different market research techniques,  although it is most commonly associated with in-depth qualitative research with individuals, known as depth… Read more...


Desk Research

Desk research, in market research terms, is the drawing together and collating of secondary information. This information, or secondary data, may take the form of previous published research reports,… Read more...


Device Agnostic Surveys

How have we made our surveys device agnostic? A key aspect for making surveys device agnostic is that we recognise from the start which device is being used and its screen size. With more surveys being… Read more...


Diary Methodology

Diary methodologies are, in market research, most commonly used to compile data about consumer purchasing habits or media viewing. With the rise of online blogging and 'apps', diary studies have… Read more...


Diary Panel Market Research

Diary panel market research is a qualitative research method whereby a selection of respondents will be asked to keep a record of their experiences or observations over a particular period of time. This… Read more...


Digital Ethnography

Digital ethnography, which is sometimes referred to as netnography or virtual ethnography, is the term used to describe carrying out ethnographic market research in an online space. Online spaces are… Read more...


Discriminant Analysis

Discriminant analysis is a statistical classifying technique often used in Market Research. The function of discriminant analysis is to identify distinctive sets of characteristics and allocate new ones… Read more...


Discussion Guide

A discussion guide is used to outline the areas of questioning used in a qualitative interview or group discussion. Discussion guides, sometimes referred to as topic guides can vary in detail. The term… Read more...


DJS Research Ltd

DJS Research Ltd is a full service market research agency based in the north of England, but with full UK and international capability. For more information on DJS and the market research we carry out,… Read more...


Door-to-Door Market Research Interviewing

Door-to-door market research interviewing is a form of qualitative research whereby a respondent is asked questions on their doorstep, face-to-face. Door to-door market research may be used for several… Read more...


Editing

Editing is the process which takes place to ensure a market research questionnaire has been correctly completed. Read more...


Education Marketing Research

Education marketing research is, essentially, research in to the education sector. The breadth of this sector means that it is often considered in small parts - such as higher education as opposed to… Read more...


Element Sampling

Element sampling, or direct element sampling, is a sampling method whereby every unit (i.e. person, organisation, group, company etc.) has an equal chance of being selected to be included in the research… Read more...


Enabling Techniques

Enabling techniques are used in qualitative research, particularly within depth interviews, to help a respondent express their views in an articulate way. Enabling techniques allow participants to say… Read more...


ESOMAR

The European Society for Opinion and Market Research (ESOMAR) was founded in 1948 and has over 4,900 members in over 130 countries. The objectives of the Society include: The promotion of the use of marketing,… Read more...


Estimate

An estimate is an assumption based on a smaller sample population which is then extrapolated as a hypothesis for a larger population. A confidence interval is used to give an idea of the reliability of… Read more...


Ethnographic Market Research

Ethnographic market research is the term used to describe the form of systematic market research, whereby researchers observe participants using a product or service, in their own environment. Using this… Read more...


Executive Summary

An executive summary can often be found towards the end of the research process. Usually the executive summary will be written into the final report by the researchers, in order for the client to understand… Read more...


Experimental Design

Experimental design is a market research process whereby the researcher has control over one or several independent variables and manipulates them in order to garner the most relevant data. Read more...


Exploratory Focus Groups

Exploratory focus groups are a form of exploratory research. This area of research is used to unpick the research questions it is not used to have a final impact on a project or create solutions to problems.… Read more...


Exploratory Research

Exploratory research is normally carried out at the early stages of a research process and is used to gain an understanding of the situation with the miminum use of time and minimal cost. Exploratory… Read more...


F-Test

F-tests are a statistical technique used to consider the possibility that the results gained from data may be down to chance, as opposed to being a robust hyposthesis. If the results are shown to be likely… Read more...


Face Validity

Face validity refers to the degree to which a measurement or piece of research is relevant - i.e. does it actually cover the concept or variable that is is trying to measure. Generally, face validity… Read more...


Factor Analysis

Factor analysis is a stastical technique used in market research to identify the unobserved variables (called Factors) within a group of correlated, observed variables, which explain that correlation.… Read more...


False Accuracy

False accuracy results from a situation where a set of data gives the impression of being accurate, when in actual fact only a small degree of accuracy is present. Most commonly, false accuracy can occer… Read more...


Fieldwork - Market Research

In market research, fieldwork is the term used for the collection of primary data from external sources, it is usually followed by a data processing step and then analysis and reporting. Fieldwork may… Read more...


Focus Group Dynamics

In market research, focus group dynamics is a term which refers to the way individuals interact with and relate to others in a group situation. It is relevant in focus groups, in that a skilled moderator… Read more...


Focus Group Marketing Research

Focus group marketing research is a type of qualitative research designed to gain a thorough insight into the viewpoints of a certain profile of respondents on a particular topic. Typically 6-8 members… Read more...


Focus Group Recruitment

Focus group recruitment is a specialised element within the market research fieldwork process and is centred around gathering respondents to take part in focus groups and group discussions. Different… Read more...


Focus Groups

Focus groups bring together a group of respondents (normally 8 - 10) who are then encouraged to discuss and debate a specific topic. Often, stimuli are used to engender greater input or to gauge reactions… Read more...


Focus Groups Methodology

Focus group methodology is the term used in market research to explain the role of focus groups, their purpose, how they are carried out and the processes that are followed during the focus group to achieve… Read more...


Freelance Market Researcher

Freelance market researchers usually work alone and are self-employed in most cases. Typically, they would have numerous years of market research experience, and are contracted by research agencies during… Read more...


Frequency

Frequency simply means the number of times a specific incident occurs. In market research, it is most often seen as a measure of a given opinion - it details the number of results which fall in to a given… Read more...


Gabor Granger Pricing Technique

The Gabor Granger Pricing Technique was created by Andre Gabor and Clive Granger, and has been in use since the 1960s.  It is a technique which asks the respondents about the likelihood that they… Read more...


Gamification Market Research

In recent years there has been an increase in the use of online surveys for market research purposes. It has been found that the visual impact and the enjoyment of taking a survey increases the quantity… Read more...


Geographics

In market research, geographics is the term for various methods used to divide or sub-divide a list based on geographic or political boundaries. For instance, a list of respondents might be divided by… Read more...


Group Discussions

Group discussions are a qualitative technique whereby respondents are recuited and invited to give their opinion on a specific topic (i.e. a product, service or proposal) in a group format. They can be… Read more...


Growth Rate

Usually shown as a percentage, growth rate records the fluctuating size of a given population by plotting the change from a specific point in time. The growth rate is calculated by dividing the total… Read more...


Hall Test Market Research

Hall tests are a form of research methodology which involves inviting respondents in to a set location (traditionally a hall, hence the name) and then asking them to respond to certain stimuli - commonly… Read more...


Hedonic Scale

The study of hedonics is the science of pleasure. In market research, a hedonic scale is most often used to assess a respondent's pleasure, or satisfaction, with a product or service at an overall… Read more...


Higher Education Market Research

Higher education market research involves utilising all of the methodologies available in the wider research sphere, but applying them specifically to the higher education sector - including universities… Read more...


Homogenous Groups

Homogenous groups are groups in which people, companies, organisations (i.e. respondents) or objects are identical, or are similar to the point at which they can be considered identical for a given purpose.… Read more...


In-depth Interview (Depth Interview)

An in-depth, or simply depth interview, is a qualitative technique which involves a researcher speaking to a respondent one-on-one, as opposed to a focus group which may include up to 10 individuals.… Read more...


Incentive - Market Research

In market research terminology, an incentive is a gift or payment made to respondents in return for them taking part in a research project. Incentives vary depending on the length of a survey, the nature… Read more...


Independent Market Research

Independent market research may have more than one specific definition. Specifically, independent market research may refer to research carried out by an independent company (such as DJS Research Ltd)… Read more...


International Market Research Companies

International Market Research Companies are market research companies that conduct qualitative research, quantitative research or a mixture of the two, for consumer or B2B marketing projects in several… Read more...


International Segmentation

There are three types of international segmentation – global, regional and unique. Global segmentation is used when there is a group of consumers with common needs that cross national borders; regional… Read more...


Internet Market Research

As the internet has become increasingly a part of everyday life, so too has it become a part of market research. Internet research has grown at a rapid pace over the last few years due to the increasing… Read more...


Judgement Sample

Judgement sample is a type of non-random sampling consisting of a group of respondents who have been selected on the basis that their views, characteristics, opinions, behaviour and outlook will be representative… Read more...


Key Verifying

In market research, key verifying is a process whereby two individuals input identical data to prepare it for processing and analysis. This is a method used to avoid distortion of data at this stage. Read more...


Kids Market Research

DJS Research has years of experience conducting market research with kids, through Chatter Zone, our kids market research community. Chatter Zone is made up of 100 children aged 8 to 18, who are available… Read more...


Laddering Market Research

Laddering is a qualitative market research method used to understand the reasons behind why people buy and use certain products and services. Laddering aims to go beyond pure functional reasons why people… Read more...


Likert Scale

The Likert Scale is commonly used in market research techniques that involve questionnaires. When answering a Likert item on a survey, the respondent is gives their level of agreement or disagreement… Read more...


Localise Profiling Tool

Localise is a population profiling and consumer segmentation tool which has applications across the public and private sectors. Localise utilises demographic data at a local level to deliver regional… Read more...


Logistic Regression

Logistic Regression is a statistical classification technique that can be used in market research. It is also known by several other names including logit regression, or logit modelling. Logistic Regression… Read more...


Longitudinal Market Research

Longitudinal market research, or simply longitudinal research, is most commonly used when there is a requirement for continual monitoring of a fixed sample of a population. Commonly the technique is referred… Read more...


Market Entry and Market Sizing Research

Market Entry and Market Sizing research is conducted before entering a new market, expanding within an existing market or releasing a new product. Market Entry and Market Sizing is essential in order… Read more...


Market Intelligence

Market intelligence is the information collected by companies of their external environment which helps to inform their strategies and tactics used in the decision-making process. Companies specifically… Read more...


Market Research Companies List

A market research companies list is essentially a list of market research agencies either in the UK, or of international market research companies worldwide. Perhaps the easiest location to find market… Read more...


Market Research Companies UK

UK market research companies are regulated by the Market Research Society and the majority abide by that body’s Code of Conduct – a strict set of guidelines outlining what is an acceptable… Read more...


Market Research Databases

Market Research Databases are organised pools of data used to store, manage and retrieve information.  The information found in market research databases includes consumer research, market insight,… Read more...


Market Research Group Dynamics

Market research group dynamics is the term which refers to the level of interaction between groups during research. Group dynamics are usually best witnessed within a focus group. A researcher is responsible… Read more...


Market Research Hostess

A market research hostess, which is sometimes referred to as a qualitative assistant, is an individual who is present for assistance at focus group discussions. The main responsibilities of a market research… Read more...


Market Research Incentives

Market research incentives are used to urge people to partake in the research; this could be for a focus group, interview or even a survey. The incentives are monetary or non- monetary. Monetary incentives… Read more...


Market Research Insight

An insight is a specific market research finding or set of related findings which give the researcher and their client an understanding of why or how a particular event occurs. It is commonly related… Read more...


Market Research Interview

A market research interview is a term used in a general sense relating to the process of drawing information from a respondent. Interviews can take several different forms - from short on-street interviews… Read more...


Market Research Interviewer

A Market Research Interviewer, usually over the phone or face-to-face on the street, will make contact with members of the public, that fall within the prescribed target market, to gather their attitudes… Read more...


Market Research Panel

Market Research Panels are made up of a group of people who meet certain demographic criteria. Respondents who sign up to a Market Research Panel are often willing to participate in multiple surveys over… Read more...


Market Research Strategy

Market research strategy refers to the strategy used to carry out market research. It is distinct from a ‘marketing strategy’ although, when clients form a marketing strategy, market research… Read more...


Market Research Taste Test

A market research taste test is a specific type of research project whereby respondents are asked to try one or more samples of food or drink and provide feedback on how they think it tastes. A market… Read more...


MAXDIFF

MAXDIFF (also known as Maximum Difference Scaling or Best/Worst Scaling) is a statistical tool developed in the 1990s which allows the importance of certain product services / benefits to be quantified… Read more...


Mean: Market Research

The mean is a simple average gained by adding together the sum of all the responses to a question, and dividing them by the number of responses. The mean is a numerical value, and is often used in mean… Read more...


Median: Market Research

The median is a method of gaining an 'average' from a set of data. First, the data must be arranged in terms of increasing magnitude, and then the middle value is selected. For example, the data… Read more...


Methodological Triangulation

Methodological triangulation is sometimes referred to as mixed method research due to it combining a mixture of market research methods into one topic. The purpose of methodological triangulation within… Read more...


Mini Groups

Mini groups are similar to a focus group only smaller they can contain between 2 and 5 people. Mini groups are a qualitative research method. They may be used when the topic area is difficult and may… Read more...


Mode: Market Research

The mode is a form of average which looks at the most commonly occuring value or response in a set of data. The mode can be a numerical value or an item for instance. For example, in the following data… Read more...


Modelling Market Research

Modelling, or predictive modelling, is the application of a set of assumptions to a number of variables and the relationship existing between those variables. Predictive modelling is useful for trying… Read more...


Monadic Rating

In monadic rating, the respondent is asked to give a product or service a rating on a scale without any reference or comparison to another product or service. Monadic scales are most often utilsied when… Read more...


Multi-Browser Testing for Surveys

How have we used multi-browser testing within our survey design? We have implemented rigorous testing across internet browser platforms (old and new). You can’t always account for every single version… Read more...


Multi-Code: Market Research

In market research, a multi-code response is one in which the respondent may choose more than one answer. So, for instance, when asked why they purchased a pair of trainers, the respondent may be able… Read more...


Multi-Dimensional Scaling

Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) is a statistical technique that allows researchers to find and explore underlying themes, or dimensions, in order to explain similarities or dissimilarities (i.e. distances)… Read more...


Multiple Choice: Market Research

In market research, a multiple choice question is a form of question where the individual being interviewed may only answer from a pre-determined list. Multiple choice questions should not be confused… Read more...


Multivariate Analysis Market Research

Mutlivariate analysis is a broad term encompassing a wide array of quantitative data analysis techniques, such as factor analysis and regression analysis. Many of these techniques involve analysing data… Read more...


Mystery Shopping Market Research

Mystery shopping is a market research technique that for measuring, and monitoring on an on-going basis if necessary, the interactions between a customer and a company or organisation during a pre-defined… Read more...


New Concept Development

New Concept Development refers to the process of bringing a new product or idea into a market. There are two branches of New Concept Development – the first involves coming up with the idea, designing… Read more...


Nominal Scale - Market Research

A nominal scale, sometimes called a qualitative scale, seperates items based on a nominal value. Nominal values cannot be 'ranked'. For instance, ethnicity would represent a nominal scale, as… Read more...


Non-Balanced Scale - Market Research

Non-balanced scales, in market research, are scales in which the respondent is given more options to express themselves one way than they are another. For instance, a non-balanced scale might be used… Read more...


Non-Probability Sampling - Market Research

Non-probability sampling is not generally encouraged in market research as it is not possible to apply findings from this kind of sample to the wider population. That said, when the project in question… Read more...


Non-sampling Error - Market Research

Non-sampling error is wide-ranging term which describes any cause of inaccuracy, i.e. the result of the research deviating from the true-value, that was not related to the sample chosen. Non-sample errors… Read more...


Observation Room

An observation room is a term used to describe a room next to another room with a window across the side of one of the walls. It is usually blacked out although occasionally both parties can see each… Read more...


Observational Techniques Market Research

Observational techniques, or observation, is the process of viewing phenomena in their naturally occuring setting. In market research, this can be a stand alone form of research methodology, or can form… Read more...


Omnibus Survey Market Research

Omnibus surveys are normally large scale market research surveys covering a nationally representative sample (or at least a sample that is in high demand) and containing a number of questions on a wide-range… Read more...


Online Focus Groups

Online focus groups are, in essence, groups of respondents (usually 8 - 10) who are encouraged to discuss and debate a specific topic via the internet. While traditional focus group studies still have… Read more...


Online Market Research

Online market research can take a number of forms - from long term communities and panels, to online focus groups which are a couple of hours long, all the way down to 2 minute surveys. When considering… Read more...


Online Survey Software

Online survey software provides a web-based format on which surveys can be created and circulated. Online survey software has been used in a variety of sectors including Education, Business, Events and… Read more...


Online Survey Tools

In utilising an online interface, online survey tools provide a quick, easy, and cost-effective means of delivering surveys, and analysis of the results yielded, through one, centralised system. Online… Read more...


Open-Ended Question Market Research

An open-ended question is often used in market research to illicit a fuller response from a respondent and to encourage them to give more of their own thoughts and feelings. It is a question which has… Read more...


Paid Market Research

Paid Market Research is sometimes offered as a thank you for participating in research projects. Our market research insight panel gives you the chance to get paid for your opinions with paid market research… Read more...


Paired Market Research Depths

Paired Market Research Depths, as the name suggests, are interviews that are carried out with two respondents at the same time. In recent years qualitative technologies have increased dramatically with… Read more...


Panel Market Research

Market research panels are groups of repondents who make up a long-standing sample group which can be used by an agency or other entity to gain data. Panels may be nationally representative and large… Read more...


Parents Market Research

DJS Research has a wealth of experience conducting market research with parents, through our parents, kids and teens online community, Chatter Zone. Chatter Zone is comprised of 50 parents of children… Read more...


Pen Portraits

Pen portraits stem from telephone surveys, where participants are asked if they are willing to take part in further research and, if so, their contact and profiling details are captured. These details… Read more...


Performance Monitoring Market Research

Performance monitoring market research provides a method of assessing the effectiveness of a marketing plan once that plan has been agreed upon. Typically, it would look at key performance measures such… Read more...


Pie Charts - Market Research

It is becoming increasingly accepted that, where possible, pie charts should be avoided when representing the majority of market research data. One of the major aims of market research is to collect and… Read more...


Point of Sale Market Research

Point of Sale is essentially when customers and products first come into contact, whether it’s in-store, online, in a catalogue, on a banner or through an app – the same rules apply. Point… Read more...


Polymer Market Research

Polymer market research is a type of industrial market research which focuses on polymers, and products with a similar chemical make up. This type of research might involve analysis of the supply chain,… Read more...


Post Code - Market Research

In market research, post codes are often used to ensure that quotas are being met. For instance, a local council may want to speak to an even spread of individuals who live across the numerous boroughs… Read more...


Postal Market Research

Postal market research involves sending out questionnaires to potential respondents via the post. Respondents are required to fill in the survey themselves and are normally provided with a business reply… Read more...


Product Positioning Research

While research into segmentation aims to identify who the customers are, Product Positioning Research helps identify what to say to them. Product Positioning Research is carried out to understand the… Read more...


Projective Techniques Market Research

Projective techniques are used in market research to help the interviewer or moderator obtain the 'real views' of a participant which might normally remain hidden. Projective techniques allow… Read more...


QR Market Research Surveys

The term QR Market Research or Quick Response Market Research refers to the method of directing potential respondents to an online survey. A QR code is a specific two-dimensional code, which can be read… Read more...


Qualifying Market Research Questions

Qualifying Market Research Questions, which also might be known as screening questions, are used in market research to identify a potential respondent that can proceed with the research interview or survey;… Read more...


Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

Qualitative and quantitative research methods are the two broad elements which make up market research. In short, quantitative research methods are often based on more numerical forms of data and qualitative… Read more...


Qualitative Market Research

Qualitative market research looks at issues in-depth and seeks to understand the how and why behind decisions, as opposed to the 'who' and 'how many'. This type of research covers a broad… Read more...


Qualitative Research Design

Qualitative research design varies depending upon the method used; participant observations, in-depth interviews (face-to-face or on the telephone), and focus groups are all examples of methodologies… Read more...


Quantitative Market Research

Quantitative market research is generally carried out on a larger scale than qualitative research - involving more numerous but shorter interviews. Quantitative market research seeks to understand how… Read more...


Quantitative Research Design

Quantitative research design relates to the design of a research project which uses quantitative research methods. The design varies depending on the method used, which could be telephone interviews,… Read more...


Quota Market Research Sample

Quota Market Research Sample is a method of sampling, most commonly used in opinion polling and market research.  It is made up of a set number of respondent that possess specified and identified… Read more...


Random Digit Dialling (RDD)

Random Digit Dialling (RDD) is a common method of selecting people to take part in telephone surveys. The computer based technique picks telephone numbers at random, to provide a representative survey… Read more...


Random Sampling

Random Sampling is one of the most common ways of sampling. As with Unbiased Market Research Samples, each person in the subset (or sample) is chosen at random and entirely by chance. This technique allows… Read more...


Regression Analysis

Regression analysis is statistical tool used to compare relationships between dependent and independent variables. It is possibly one of the most widely used statistical techniques. Regression analysis… Read more...


Representative Sample

 A representative sample is similar to an unbiased market research sample; it is a subset of a population that accurately reflects all members of that population. It is made up of a small quantity… Read more...


Research Agency

A market research agency is a company, division of a company, organisation or (sometimes) an individual who specialises in carrying out market research projects. Agencies come in different guises - some… Read more...


Research Methods

Research is a process of enquiry and investigation. It is also systematic, methodical and ethical and research can help solve practical problems and increase knowledge. Generally, research can be broken… Read more...


Sample - Market Research

In market research, sample refers to a sub-group of the population which is being researched. For instance, to understand how football fans feel about the use of technology in football, we would not ask… Read more...


Sampling Frame

A sampling frame is a list or database from which a sample can be used. In market research terms, a sampling frame is a database of potential respondents that can be drawn from to invite to take part… Read more...


Sampling Interval

Sampling interval is the distance or time between which measurements are taken, or data is recorded. In research terms, also referred to as ‘nth selection’, this is when we select every nth… Read more...


Sampling Unit

A sampling unit can refer to any single person, animal, plant, product or ‘thing’ being researched In the context of market research, a sampling unit is an individual person. The term sampling… Read more...


Scaled-Response Questions

Scaled-response questions are questions that have a predefined answer list with options that are incrementally related to each other with the purpose of measuring the intensity to which a respondent feels… Read more...


School Market Research

Market research with schools is often carried out in order to speak to teachers and other educators about their views on a range of topics - including the resources available to them, their satisfaction… Read more...


Secondary Market Research

Secondary market research includes data that is already compiled and organised for you. Examples of secondary information include reports and studies by government agencies, trade associations or other… Read more...


Sequential Market Research Testing

Sequential market research testing is the process of using an individual participant to test a single product, and after they have provided feedback on this product, using the same participant to repeat… Read more...


SIMALTO

SIMALTO is the acronym given to the term Simultaneous Multi-Attribute Level Trade-Off.  This tool was invented by a market researcher called John Green in 1977, and is used in both business and consumer… Read more...


Stimuli (Market Research)

Stimuli (stimulus in the singular) are any materials or items used to prompt respondents in a market research setting. Stimuli may be physical (such as a product) or audio / visual, such as a film or… Read more...


Strategic Priority Matrix (SPM)

The strategic priority matrix is an effective tool to use in order to demonstrate gaps between the required or expected service level and the level of service currently being received. This can show areas… Read more...


Structural Equation modelling

Structural equation modelling, often abbreviated to SEM, is a multivariate analysis technique, which pools together a range of traditional multivariate analysis methods and are then estimated simultaneously.… Read more...


SWOT Analysis

A SWOT Analysis is a method used in market research to analyse four key aspects of a client business or project that could determine the success of said business or project in achieving its objectives.… Read more...


Target Population

Before research can begin the target population must be identified and agreed upon. The target population is the entire population, or group, that a researcher is interested in researching and analysing.… Read more...


Teacher Evaluation Research

Teacher evaluation research is designed to understand the effectiveness of teachers in terms of their ability to carry out their role - i.e. how good are teachers at teaching. There are numerous methods… Read more...


Teens Market Research

DJS Research has a wide range of experience carrying out market research with teenagers, through our online community, Chatter Zone. Chatter Zone is comprised of 100 children and teenagers aged 8 to 18,… Read more...


Telephone Interview Market Research

Telephone interviews are similar to other forms of market research interview, but are carried out over the phone. Telephone interviews fall under two broad categories - teledepths and quantitative interviews.… Read more...


Telephone Research Sample

Telephone research sample, put simply, is the name given to those respondents who complete research over the phone. It is still commonplace for research to be performed over the telephone - this can be… Read more...


Tests of Significance

Tests of significance (or significance testing) are the mathematical testing or checking of data to see how high or low the probability is that it would be different from the characteristics or views… Read more...


TGI (Target Group Index)

Target Group Index is the oldest single source media and marketing survey in Britain being established since 1969. This now covers more than 50 countries worldwide with hundreds of thousands of completed… Read more...


Trend Market Research Data

Trend market research data looks at responses over time, usually at regular intervals (e.g. monthly, quarterly or yearly), rather than at a singular point. Trending data over time means that we can observe… Read more...


TURF Market Research Analysis

TURF market research analysis is a technique of statistical analysis, which is used to project estimates of media and market potential of a product or service. In order to provide such estimates, TURF… Read more...


Unbalanced Scale

An unbalanced scale question is the opposite of one which utilises a balanced scale. It is an ordinal question asked to respondents in a piece of market research, commonly of a quantitative nature, and… Read more...


Unbiased Market Research Samples

Unbiased Market Research Samples are a subset set of people chosen from a population. Each person is chosen at random and entirely by chance. This technique allows each individual to have the same probability… Read more...


Univariate Analysis - Market Research

Univariate analysis is a form of quantitative, statistical, evaluation. This method of analysis separately studies the findings regarding each variable in a data set, and therefore each individual variable… Read more...


Unstructured Questions

Unstructured questions are used in qualitative research and most predominantly, in face-to-face interviews, as conversation is able to flow more naturally between the researcher and the respondent. However,… Read more...


Unstructured Segmentation

Unstructured segmentation is the action of segmenting a market without any prior knowledge or information as to how many segments there are, how they are different and why these differences might exist.… Read more...


Validity

In market research, validity is the degree to which the purpose of a research project was successfully fulfilled - i.e. did the project actually measure the things it was intended to. Read more...


Value Assessment Research

Value Assessment Research allows companies to assess the worth of a new product or service before it is introduced to the market. By conducting this type of research, companies can gauge whether or not… Read more...


Van Westendorp Pricing Technique

The Van Westendorp pricing techniqueis used to determine the optimal price point for a product. Typically, open questions which ask a consumer how much they would be willing to buy for a product produce… Read more...


Verbatim

A verbatim is a 'word for word' statement or response from a respondent or research participant. Verbatims are typically an output of quantitative research, but may also fall out of open-ended… Read more...


Video Focus Groups

The term video focus group refers to a focus group which is carried out via a webcam, or smartphone application. Therefore, a video focus group allows one to participate in or conduct a focus group, remotely.… Read more...


Viewing Room

Within market research, a Viewing Room is a dedicated room in which researchers can sit and observe focus groups and depth interviews through a one way mirror. These Viewing Rooms are often found in Market… Read more...


VoicED Education Market Research Community

VoicED is a bespoke education market research community owned and operated by DJS Research Ltd. The panel provides both full service education market research and simple sample provision for market research… Read more...


Weighted Market Research Sample

Arguably, weighted market research sample is an underused commodity, which can significantly impact the results of a research project and thus alter the business objectives which arise from the research.… Read more...


Word Association

In market research, word association is a method of testing respondents' opinions and perceptions by giving them a word or phrase and requesting that they respond with the first word that comes in… Read more...


X Generation (Generation X)

Generation X is the generation of individuals born after the Second World War, approximately between the early 1960s and the early 1980s. The key point about generation X is less when they were born,… Read more...


X Market Research - (#MRX)

MRX is a common shorthand for market research - initially used frequently on Twitter and other social networks, it has now become a well-known standard. Many early users thought the tag stood for Market… Read more...


Y Generation (Generation Y)

Generation Y, also called the millenial generation, is the generation of people directly following that of Generation X. Their birth dates are less defined, although most commentators agree with birth… Read more...


Yea Saying - Market Research

Also known as acquiescence bias, Yea Saying is a phenomenon which occurs from certain respondents tending to agree with whatever is said to them. This bias often occurs when either the researchers, or… Read more...


Z-Test

A Z-test is a statistical test, used in market research to determine the similarity between two sets of data. Z-tests are usually used when sample values are high, and compare the means of two seperate… Read more...


ZIP Code - Market Research

ZIP codes are the equivalent of post codes in United States. ZIP codes are assigned by the United States Postal Service and the acronym stands for Zone Improvement Plan. Standard ZIP codes are either… Read more...


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